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Zigong Longteng Culture and Art Co., Ltd.
Zigong had the custom of making lanterns, playing with lanterns and enjoying lanterns in the Tang and Song dynasties, and the form of lanterns in Chengdu is no more than this.
The main forms of lamps at that time:
The craft lamp is the largest number of lamps in the history of Zigong. It also played the leading role in the previous Zigong Lantern Festivals after liberation; after 1984, with the rise of the large-scale group of lanterns in Zigong Lantern Festival, it became an important light cavalry lantern species, threading the needles and filling the vacancies for the exhibitions of the various Lantern Festivals. , Contrast the atmosphere to play a special role.
1. Traditional craft lamps
"Palace Lantern" and "Gauze Lantern"
Palace lanterns and yarn lanterns are traditional craft lamps named after the shape of the lamp. The palace lantern has a hexagonal long shape, which is connected by two parts, the upper part is large and the lower part is small, the upper part is short and the lower part is long. The yarn lamp is in the form of a drum sphere, with a short vertical axis and a long flat axis. There is a folk saying that the lantern is like the sun and the palace lantern is like the moon. Wang Wei's poem of Tang Dynasty: "The palace hangs the sun and the moon shines on the universe", which is a visual description of palace lanterns and yarn lanterns.
In ancient times, the palace lanterns and yarn lanterns in Zigong were made of bamboo and wood, and red silk, cloth, paper, etc. could be used as lanterns. The palace lanterns and gauze lanterns hanging in the halls and gates of the rich are very elaborate, some are inlaid with gold and jade, some are decorated with colorful spikes, and some are inscribed with poems. There are carved dragon heads on the hexagons of the palace lanterns. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, it was very common to use glass inlaid palace lanterns. Because the yarn lamp is in the shape of a drum sphere, three pieces of "B"-shaped bamboo strips are nailed into a tripod, hang it up, and the three legs are separated to hang from the ground. The use of yarn lanterns has this feature, so in the old days, it was more widely used than palace lanterns. "Dragon lanterns", "lion lanterns", "flower lanterns (also known as horse lanterns) and other juggling lanterns were often used to accompany dancers.
After the liberation, all previous lantern festivals in Zigong had palace lanterns and yarn lanterns on display. At the Lantern Festival in the 1960s, most palace lanterns and yarn lanterns were made of bamboo and wood colored paper, but there were innovations in terms of shape, decoration and color. Since the first lantern festival after liberation, there have been palace lanterns that use lead wire and steel instead of bamboo and wood as lamp stands, and there are also electric revolving palace lanterns. In the 1970s, when the fourth Spring Festival Lantern Festival was held, it was very common to replace bamboo and wooden lamp stands with lead wires, and plastic films were also widely used in the production of lamp clothing. After the Fifth Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival in 1984, modern materials such as lead wire, steel, and plastic fabrics almost completely replaced bamboo, wood and paper in the lamp-making process.
"Triangle Light" (also known as "Double Light")
Among the traditional craft lamps, the lamp is simple in shape, easy to manufacture and widely used as a triangular lamp. It has a square mouth, a pointed bottom, and a slightly bucket shape, so it is also called "dou lantern". It can be used to hang the door, light a lamp pole, or serve as a god. The nine lamps in parallel are also called "nine lamps". The production is made by bundling and forming with thin stripes, red paper, with the square mouth facing upward, and a small oil lamp bowl (you can also use a small oil dish instead) to light it. There are also special fired ceramic lamps. The bowl is lit.
"Square lights" and "hexagonal lights"
Square lamps and hexagonal lamps are also two traditional craft lamps named after their shape. The lamp surface can be made of paper paste or decorated with silk yarn. Using glass as the lamp surface is better than other materials because of its light transparency. These two kinds of lamps are also widely used, and they are hung at the door, tea hall, wine shop, inn, and store. During the period of the Republic of China, Zigong salt merchants also hung square lanterns behind the sedan chairs to inflate them.
The door head hangs a square lamp or a hexagonal lamp. Usually red is used, and rich people also pay attention to the decoration of the lamp surface and paint more colorful pictures and texts.
The tea house hangs square or hexagonal lamps. Most of these teahouses were opened by Pao Ge and Bangkou. They usually hang three or five square or hexagonal lamps in the tea hall, and the words of Brother Pao are written on the lamp surface, which is also called "words". For example, "Ten thousand miles of clouds go to Jiuxiao, mountains and rivers block the road, Taoyuan's righteous people are all effective, and the neck is cut with gold and morality." Change the old chapter", "Everyone in Xiantai is a lotus flower, and all the Pantao Society are Arhat Linfan, can understand martial arts, are bachelors who love from all directions, teach scriptures and sayings, two Yizi can't think of fate", etc., the next topic helps name.
Hotel hanging square lights or hexagonal lights. Most of them are hung at the front of the hotel door, and some are also hung in the store. There are many inscriptions on the lamp face, such as "Hundred Poems of Li Bai's Fighting Wine", "Persuading you to drink a glass of wine", "How to solve your worries, only Du Kang", "There is wine today and I am drunk" and other words about alcoholism, and the name of the store is inscribed below.
The warehouse hangs square lamps or hexagonal lamps. The name of the inn is written on the lamp face, accompanied by words such as "stay before it is too late, the cock crowing early to see the sky", "the sun is over, where do you go?" You can see it is an inn from a distance.
Car lights. In the book "Articles Well" written by the woodcutter, it is recorded: "Inoue "Refers to the Artesian Well" when the gentry and merchants go to the street during the day, three or four square lamps must be hung behind the sedan chair. The sedan chair is heavy, and if you walk on the streets of Chengdu, you will teach people to laugh and say it is 'Duan Gong' (Duan Gong, that is, the local language in Sichuan)." According to folklore, in Chengdu, when Duan Gong collects ghosts, he must carry a lantern in his hand, so Chengdu has It is said that those who play lanterns during the day are "Duan Gong".
"Fushun County Chronicle" (the version supervised by Song Yuren) "temple altar" records: "Lingying Temple is ninety miles north of the county, near Niufodu Moon Cliff, built in Ming Wanli, with wire lanterns between the beams. Shengguo Temple is in the county. Sixty miles to the north, near Niufodu, built in the second year of Jingtai in the Ming Dynasty, there are also wire lanterns between the beams. The lanterns of the two temples are a pair.”
"Carved Iron Garden Lamp"
"Fushun County Chronicle · Song Zhi" records: "Ren Temple is located in Banqiao Dam, 70 miles west of the county. It was built in Wanli in the Ming Dynasty. There are carved iron garden lamps.
The export of well salt was mostly carried by mules and horses in history, and the night lights of mules and horses were called "horse lights". Hanging under the necks of mules and horses, it is a glass lamp wrapped in iron. Light vegetable oil or candles at first, not afraid of wind and rain. After the kerosene was imported, the "horse lantern" was improved by imitating the structure of the kerosene lamp. Install a metal frame on the seat of the kerosene lamp, which can not only protect the lampshade, but also hang it by hand. The specially made "horse lantern" is much larger than the kerosene lamp, which is very convenient for night lighting. Therefore, the "Lantern Festival" was held during the Republic of China, which was mostly used as one of the lamps for the lantern parade. However, the "horse lantern" light stand mentioned in the parade is often tied with decorations such as paper flowers and colorful spikes.
"Turning Horse Lantern" is a traditional craft lamp that can be rotated. Its device is to install a rotatable multi-faceted lamp or a circular cylindrical lamp in a relatively large lamp as an inner lamp. The inner lamp relies on the hot air generated by the burning candle to form an airflow, which expands and flows in one direction between the outer lamp and the inner lamp, driving the inner lamp to rotate. The lamp surface of the inner lamp can draw or write various character stories and poems and pictures. Its elegance and vulgarity come from the ingenuity and design of the maker. In short, it is better to be novel, unique and eye-catching. The "Long Live the Motherland" and "Celebrating the Harvest" displayed in the first Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival are an electric "walking horse".
"Kong Ming Lantern"
It is an ancient tradition to play "Kongming lanterns" among the people of Zigong. According to legend, the "Kongming Lantern" was invented by Zhuge Liang Kongming, the prime minister of Shu Han, and used it to command the army to fight at night. There are three common "Kongming lanterns": one is to use kites to bring small olive-shaped paper lanterns to the sky. If the kite is big and powerful, you can hang a string of firecrackers under the lamp, and use the incense stick to guide the lantern to the sky. Eye-catching, another kind of "Kongming lantern" is made of thin paper into a pocket, the mouth of the pocket is down, a lamp is hung inside, the ground is set on fire, people hold their mouths, and the hot air is poured into the bag. As the heat increases, the paper bag It expands and rises slowly until the heat dissipates. The kite "Kongming Lantern" can only be played in the seasons when the wind blows from the southeast and the direction does not change before and after the Qingming Festival. The paper bag "Kongming Lantern" can be played all year round. The third "Kongming lantern" uses a hydrogen balloon to bring a small lantern to the sky, which is easy to make and easy to play.
2. Character modeling craft lamp
In history, whenever major celebrations and mourning activities are held, there are more "hiding the sky and crossing the sea". Under "Hiding the Sky and Crossing the Sea", there are usually many story characters lanterns hanging. "Hiding the sky and crossing the sea" is also known as "light shed". During the Spring Festival, the city builds "light sheds" and hangs all kinds of story characters. Among them, "Fairy Scattering Flowers", "Arhat Bathing" and other character lights are most appreciated by tourists. People look at the lights below, the "fairy" sprinkles you with "flowers", and the "arhat" pours water on you, which makes visitors laugh loudly, and children especially like it.
In the 4th year of the Republic of China (1915), Cai E passed away, and a memorial service was held. The "Hiding the Sky and the Sea" on Ziliujing Street was hung with "Jing Loyalty to Serve the Country", "Taoyuan Three Knots", "Killing the Dog to Shock the Wife", "Dongbin Opera Peony" , "Twenty-four Filial Piety" and other story character lights. The production of the lamp came from the hands of the decoration craftsmen in the bar shop in the half street of Ziliujing at that time. The characters are all lifelike and vivid. The method is to weave or tie bamboo strips into shape, paste them on vellum paper, then dye them in color, and finally draw and outline the image.
The first, second, third, and fourth lantern festivals held after liberation displayed many lanterns in memory of or remembering revolutionary martyrs and the older generation of proletarian revolutionaries.
In 1964, the first Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival exhibited the "Red Rock and Green Pine Lanterns" to commemorate the revolutionary martyrs. The production of these figure lamps completely adopts the traditional paste technology. The material is made of lead wire to bind the skeleton. The characters are vivid and realistic.
The lanterns of revolutionary martyrs in the second Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival in 1965 were similar to the first Lantern Festival. The heroic images of Xu Yunfeng, Jiang Jie, Chen Gang and other martyrs stand on the red rock, pines and cypresses.
In 1978, the character lanterns of the Fourth Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival were mainly to cherish the memory of the older generation of proletarian revolutionaries. The No. 1 Machine Factory produced "Thinking of relatives every festive season", and No. 32 Middle School produced the character image lamps of the older generation of proletarian revolutionaries such as Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou, Chairman Zhu De, etc. for tourists to remember. The characters in memory of revolutionary martyrs include the "embroidered golden plaque" of the glass factory and the "Pride Yang Song" of the Gaofeng Iron Factory.
In 1988 Zigong International Dinosaur Lantern Festival exhibited other character modeling lamps including "Jinling Twelve Hairpins", "Lotus Dance", "Tibetan Dance", "Korean Dance", "Xinjiang Dance" and "Facial Mask Lamp".
3. Animal Shape Craft Lamp
Poultry six livestock lights
"Rabbit Lamp". It is a kind of traditional folk self-made lamp. It is made by weaving and tying it with fine silk, pasting white paper, opening a square opening on the back, burning a fire candle inside, placing a wooden upside down, installing a roller on the bottom, pulling the child with a rope, and rolling on the ground, which is quite interesting. Instead of using a rope, take a piece of bamboo as the tail, slightly tilted upward, and the child holds the piece of stick in his hand, and it is more comfortable to push, drag and roll. If the rabbit's ears are long, a bamboo stick is used to cross the two ears, and then the two ears are hung in the two ear holes of the rabbit's head, and a small stone pendant is hung from the bamboo stick. The ears are swayed back and forth, just like a living little white rabbit, which is more interesting to play.
Bird, beast, insect and fish lamp
Among the craft lamps of Zigong Lantern Festival, there are many lamps representing birds, animals, insects and fish. Among them, fish, shrimp, and mussel shells are the main objects, and the image of "carp jumping over the dragon gate" is more vivid.
"Goldfish Lamp". This is a self-made folk traditional lamp. The method is similar to the "rabbit lamp". If you use its eyes to protrude, install small windmills instead of eyes, hang them in the wind, and the goldfish's eyes will rotate.
"Butterfly Lights". In the folk, it is also a kind of self-made lamp. The method is the same as that of the "goldfish lamp". If there is an opening on the back, a candle can be burned in the abdomen, a wooden stick is installed under the abdomen, and the two wings are connected with iron wire.
"Chub Lamp". It is also a self-made traditional lamp for the folks to play. Flat and long, shaped like a silver carp. The body is soft and the inside is empty, a mouthful on the back, and a candle in the belly. During the Qingming season, it is very interesting to play in the sky and watch it at night. The production materials are fine silk, vellum, and paint, and the method is the same as that of the "goldfish lamp".
"Centipede Lamp". For the folks who put the sky in the sky, they play their own homemade lamps. Hang a lantern under your belly. The small "centipede lamp" is two or three feet long, and the large one is more than ten feet long. There are 1 to 3 hanging lamps, depending on the strength of the ride. The practice is the same as that of the "silver carp lamp". Only its shape is braided with thin and thin strips.
"The Caterpillar Marrying the Lamp". Zigong folk custom, on the eighth day of April, when the Buddha was born, the caterpillar was married. Folklore: If the "caterpillar marriage lamp" is lit at home, the caterpillars will not enter the house in that year. The lamp is divided into upper and lower parts. On the top is the caterpillar frame (harmonic "marry" sound), and hangs the caterpillar lamp on the bottom. The frame is made of thin wood chips or bamboo chips mounted on red paper, crossed and nailed to form a frame, and four words and eight sentences are spoken at the two ends of each chip.
Four words and eight sentences are four short sentences, such as:
The Buddha was born on the eighth day of the fourth month, and the caterpillar was married today.
Marry to the mountains and never go home.
If a long sentence has a written rule, it is sixteen sentences. like:
Four or eight days after the Buddha's birthday, the caterpillar married far away into the mountains;
Say goodbye to Aniang and climb the ancient road, and return to her husband and son-in-law on Chongluan;
The fragrant boudoir is weak and squirming, and the string angle is delicate and stained;
Entrusted with the rugged mountain road, the colorful and flower umbrella re-makeup;
The red candles are opened in Guifutang, and the embroidered cave curtains are hung with purple lights to welcome;
The first meeting of Baijiao Cup, Jinqu Mountain pillow Luan Fengming;
Gather together to love the mandarin ducks and birds, and disperse the mayfly and dew water;
The pitiful pipa hugs every year, tears soaking into Hu Chen's clothes.
The lamp is in the shape of a long flower basket, decorated with colorful brocade silk, shaped like a caterpillar, and burns a candle inside. The afterglow is illuminated, and the poems are placed on the shelf, which can be seen at night. If you don't make a house of lights, you write four words and eight sentences on red paper, and stick them on the wall. It is said that the same is true.
"Electronic Bird Lights". In 1984, the 5th Zigong Spring Festival Lantern Festival was hung on the cross-lake promenade of the People's Office, with singing and dancing, controlled by electronic programs.
4. Plant modeling lamp
"Iron Flower Tree Lamp"
"Fushun County Chronicle" (Song Yuren supervised version) "temple altar" records: "Jizhen Temple is 120 miles south of the county. It was built during the Wanli period of the Ming Dynasty. There are iron lamps hanging in the Daxiong Hall, surrounded by flowers and trees, and it is clear and empty. , although the strong wind and rain ignite the lamp, it will not go out.”
"'Please Water' Lotus Lantern"
In the old days, it was a folk custom to make a "dojo" and "please water" to float lanterns in rivers or ponds (that is, the custom of "floating river lanterns" on the fifteenth day of the seventh lunar month). In order to show his talent in making lamps, he often makes some lotus lamps to float. The method is the same as that of the bucket lamp. It is made of thick paper into the shape of a lotus flower. After dyeing, it is soaked in tung oil. After drying, the oil does not leak and can float on the water surface. If it is made of wood, the lamp is not easy to overturn or go out, and the effect is better.
"Fruit Flower Lamp"
The melon and fruit lamp in the melon and fruit flower lamp uses bamboo strips wrapped in paper as melon vines. The vines are covered with deep and light green leaves, and the green leaves are dotted with large and small melons and fruits, such as loofah, pumpkin and so on. In 1988, the "Melon and Fruit Lamp" produced by the Municipal Timber Company was exhibited at the Beihai Dragon Lantern Festival, which contrasted with the "Taigong Fishing" lamp group. Strings of crystal-clear grapes, ripe watermelons, and green loofahs in the "melon and fruit shed" set off the leisurely life of Jiang Taigong in seclusion.
In 1964, Cao Shuaifen, the professional group of lantern making at the first Lantern Festival, imitated the traditional method, made lotus flowers and lotus leaves and placed them on the water surface of the lake in People's Park, forming a lake of red and white lotus flowers with green leaves supporting each other, which is very beautiful. But no lights were lit in the flowers, and they were illuminated by electric lights along the lake at night. In the 2nd Lantern Festival in 1965, among the 120 craft lanterns made in Da'an District, there were 24 water lotus lanterns.
"Fruit and Vegetable Lamp"
In the previous lantern festivals, under the wisteria trellis in the green tea garden of People's Park, there were lanterns of fruits and vegetables. Most of these lamps are made of iron wire. After the paste paper is painted, a layer of varnish water is also applied to prevent the rain from being damaged.